Fleet Optimisation Exercise for European City Logistics

Project Background

The goal of this project is to determine the most optimal mixed fleet setup which can deliver and pick-up packages in a given city at the lowest possible cost. The interventions proposed from this study aim at minimising the operational cost as well as the environmental impacts of the operations.  

Research Questions 

  1. Determine the cost and efficiency impact of incorporating multiple delivery modes like bikes and walkers in inner city delivery operations. 
  2. Identify the ideal combination of manual bikes, e-bikes, EVs and walkers which has the minimum operating cost per package and stop without negatively impacting efficiency 
  3. Determine the reduction in emission and congestions by switching to EVs, bikes and walkers from the current fleet 


  1. The project started by analysing the parcel delivery data in Munich and London
  2. Using centre gravity approach, optimal location to place consolidation hubs in the city of London was determined
  3. A decision rule to select whether to use package cars or bikes when delivering a parcel was developed using economic modelling approach
  4. This decision rule was then used to develop an agent-based model, describing one-month operations
  5. Experimentation was done to identify option that might minimise operational cost and environmental impacts

Project Lead

Professor Philip Greening 

Co-investigators/ PhDs/ RAs 

Dr Dhanan Utomo